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Dr. Timo Gnambs

Research Data Center, Methods Development | Educational Measurement


Research interests

  • Technology-based psychological assessement
  • Survey methodology
  • Methods of educational large-scale assessments
  • Meta-analysis
  • Media psychology
  • Publications


    Gnambs, T. (2024). Methoden der internetbasierten Diagnostik in der Psychologie. In R. Dohrenbusch (Hrsg.), Psychologische Begutachtung: Leitlinien und Empfehlungen für die Praxis. Springer.
    Gnambs, T., & Lenhard, W. (2024). Remote testing of reading comprehension in 8-year-old children: Mode and setting effects. Assessment, 31(2), 248-262.
    Gnambs, T., & Nusser, L. (2024). Out-of-level cognitive testing of children with special educational needs. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 40(1), 40-45.
    Gnambs, T., & Schroeders, U. (2024). Accuracy and precision of fixed and random effects in meta-analyses of randomized control trials for continuous outcomes. Research Synthesis Methods, 15(1), 86-106.
    Gnambs, T., & Schroeders, U. (2024). Reliability and factorial validity of the core self-evaluations scale: A meta-analytic investigation of wording effects. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication.
    Scharl, A., & Gnambs, T. (2024). The impact of different methods to correct for response styles on the external validity of self-reports. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 40(1), 13-21.
    Schroeders, U., Morgenstern, M., Jankowsky, K., & Gnambs, T. (2024). Short-scale construction using meta-analytic ant colony optimization: A demonstration with the need for cognition scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication.
    Stein, J.-P., Messingschlager, T., Gnambs, T., Hutmacher, F., & Appel, M. (2024). Attitudes towards AI: Measurement and associations with personality. Scientific Reports, 14, Article 2909.
    Welling, J., Gnambs, T., & Carstensen, C. H. (2024). Identifying disengaged responding in multiple-choice items: Extending a latent class item response model with novel process data indicators. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 84(2), 314-319.


    Appel, M., & Gnambs, T. (2023). Women in fiction: Bechdel-Wallace Test results for the highest-grossing movies of the last four decades. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 12(4), 499-504.
    Bayer, S., Blask, K., Gnambs, T., Jansen, M., Maehler, D., Meyermann, A., & Neuendorf, C. (2023). Editorial - Data for psychological research in the educational field: Spotlights, data infrastructures, and findings from research. Journal of Open Psychology Data, 11(1), Article 19.
    Erhardt, T., Gnambs, T., & Sengewald, M.-A. (2023). Studying item effects and their correlation patterns with multi-construct multi-state models. PloS ONE, 18(8), Article e0288711.
    Gnambs, T. (2023). A brief note on the standard error of the Pearson correlation. Collabra: Psychology, 9(1), Article 87615.
    Gnambs, T. (2023). The web-based assessment of mental speed: An experimental study of testing mode effects for the trail-making test. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 39(5), 349-353.
    Gnambs, T., & Lockl, K. (2023). Bidirectional effects between reading and mathematics development across secondary school. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 26(2), 345–371.
    Gnambs, T., & Sengewald, M.-A. (2023). Meta-analytic structural equation modeling with fallible measurements. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 231(1), 39-52.
    Gnambs, T., & Senkbeil, M. (2023). Wie entwickeln sich ICT Kompetenzen im Jugendalter? NEPS Forschung kompakt 1. Leibniz-Institut für Bildungsverläufe.
    Hanfstingl, B., Gnambs, T., Fazekas, C., Gölly, K., Matzer, F., & Tikvić, M. (2023). The dimensionality of the brief COPE before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessment, 30(2), 287-301.
    Hanfstingl, B., Gnambs, T., Porsch, R., & Jude, N. (2023). Exploring the association between non-specialised science teacher rates and student science literacy: An analysis of PISA data across 18 nations. International Journal of Science Education. Advance online publication.
    Hanfstingl, B., Uhler, J., Edelsbrunner, P. A., Dettweiler, U., & Gnambs, T. (2023). Editorial: From "modern" to "postmodern" psychology: Is there a way past [Special issue]. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article 1091721.
    Heyne, N., Gnambs, T., Lockl, K., & Neuenhaus, N. (2023). Predictors of adolescents’ change in reading literacy: The role of reading strategies, reading motivation, and declarative metacognition. Current Psychology, 42, 32061-32075.
    Schöfl, M., Steinmair, G., Zepnik, S., & Gnambs, T. (2023). Entwicklung eines digitalen Rechtschreibtests für die erste Klasse Grundschule: Dimensionalität und Reliabilität des SCHNAPP-Rechtschreibtests. Lernen und Lernstörungen, 12(4), 188-200.
    Schöfl, M., Steinmair, G., Zepnik, S., & Gnambs, T. (2023). Equivalence of computer- and paper-based administrations of the SCHNAPP spelling test in German for six-year-old children. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication.
    Sengewald, M.-A., Erhardt, T., & Gnambs, T. (2023). The predictive validity of item effect variables in the satisfaction with life scale for psychological and physical health. Assessment, 30(8), 2461–2475.
    Thums, K., Gehrer, K., Gnambs, T., Lockl, K., & Nusser, L. (2023). Data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) in Germany: Educational pathways of students in grade 5 and higher. Journal of Open Psychology Data, 11(3), 1-14.


    Breznau, N., Rinke, E. M., Wuttke, A., Nguyen, H. H. V., Adem, M., Adriaans, J., Alvarez-Benjumea, A., Andersen, H. K., Auer, D., Azevedo, F., Bahnsen, O., Balzer, D., Bauer, G., Bauer, P. C., Baumann, M., Baute, S., Benoit, V., Bernauer, J., Berning, C., . . . Żółtak, T. (2022). Observing many researchers using the same data and hypothesis reveals a hidden universe of uncertainty. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(44), Article: e2203150119.
    Freund, M.-J., Gnambs, T., Lockl, K., & Wolter, I. (2022). Profiles of competence development in mathematics and reading in early secondary education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 37(4), 1015-1034.
    Gehrer, K., Fackler, S., Street, K., Gnambs, T., Lindorff, A., & Lockl, K. (2022). Editorial: Learning in Times of COVID-19: Students', Families', and Educators' Perspectives. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 915250.
    Gnambs, T. (2022). The day of the week effect on subjective wellbeing. Exploring public attitudes, informing public policy : Selected findings from the first nine rounds (4, pp. 9). ESS ERIC.
    Mara, M., Appel, M., & Gnambs, T. (2022). Human-like robots and the uncanny valley: A meta-analysis of user responses based on the Godspeed scales. Journal of Psychology, 230(1), 33–46.
    Marker, C., Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2022). Exploring the myth of the chubby gamer: A meta-analysis on sedentary video gaming and body mass. Social Science & Medicine, 301, Article 112325.
    Schönmoser, C., Karwath, C., & Gnambs, T. (2022). Parent and teacher assessments of social-emotional competence in three-year-old children: Does sibling status matter? Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 40(5), 621–633.
    Schroeders, U., Kubera, F., & Gnambs, T. (2022). The structure of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20): A meta-analytic confirmatory factor analysis. Assessment, 29(8), 1806-1823.
    Schroeders, U., Schmidt, C. M., & Gnambs, T. (2022). Detecting careless responding in survey data using stochastic gradient boosting. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 82(1), 29–56.
    Zinn, S., & Gnambs, T. (2022). Analyzing nonresponse in longitudinal surveys using Bayesian additive regression trees: A nonparametric event history analysis. Social Science Computer Review, 40(3), 678-699.


    Feseker, T., Gnambs, T., & Artelt, C. (2021). Setting a standard for low reading proficiency: A comparison of the bookmark procedure and constrained mixture Rasch model. PloS ONE, 16(11), Article e0257871.
    Fischer, L., Rohm, T., Carstensen, C. H., & Gnambs, T. (2021). Linking of rasch-scaled tests: Consequences of limited item pools and model misfit. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 633896.
    Freund, M.-J., Wolter, I., Lockl, K., & Gnambs, T. (2021). Determinants of profiles of competence development in mathematics and reading in upper secondary education in Germany. PloS ONE, 16(1), Article e0258152.
    Freund, M.-J., Wolter, I., Lockl, K., & Gnambs, T. (2021). Profiles of competence development in upper secondary education and their predictors (Registered report protocol). PloS ONE, 16(1), 1-12.
    Gnambs, T. (2021). The day of the week effect on subjective well-being in the European Social Survey: An individual-participant meta-analysis. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 229(1), 38-47.
    Gnambs, T. (2021). The development of gender differences in information and communication technology (ICT) literacy in middle adolescence. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, Article 106533.
    Gnambs, T., Scharl, A., & Rohm, T. (2021). Comparing perceptual speed between educational contexts: The case of students with special educational needs. Psychological Test Adaptation and Development, 2(1), 93-101.
    Novita, S., Lockl, K., & Gnambs, T. (2021). Reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual children in primary school: The role of linguistic abilities and phonological processing skills. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 37(4), 993–1013.
    Palma, S., Gnambs, T., Crevenna, R., & Jordakieva, G. (2021). Airborne human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission risk during ablation procedures: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Research, 192, Article 110437.
    Rohm, T., Carstensen, C. H., Fischer, L., & Gnambs, T. (2021). Disentangling interviewer and area effects in large-scale educational assessments using cross-classified multilevel item response models. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, 9(4), 722–744.
    Rohm, T., Carstensen, C. H., Fischer, L., & Gnambs, T. (2021). The achievement gap in reading competence: The effect of measurement non-invariance across school types. Large-scale Assessments in Education, 9, Article 23.
    Schweinsberg, M., Feldman, M., Staub, N., van den Akker, O. R., Aert, R. C. M. v., van Assen, M. A. L. M., Liu, Y., Althoff, T., Heer, J., Kale, A., Mohamed, Z., Amireh, H., Parsad, V., Bernstein, A., Robinson, E., Snellman, K., Sommer, A., Otner, S., Robinson, D., . . . Uhlmann, E. L. (2021). Same data, different conclusions: Radical dispersion in empirical results when independent analysts operationalize and test the same hypothesis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 165, 228-249.
    Wedderhoff, N., Gnambs, T., Wedderhoff, O., Burgard, T., & Bošnjak, M. (2021). On the structure of affect: A meta-analytic investigation of the dimensionality and the cross-national applicability of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). Journal of Psychology, 229(1), 24-37.
    Zinn, S., Landrock, U., & Gnambs, T. (2021). Web-based and mixed-mode cognitive large-scale assessments in higher education: An evaluation of selection bias, measurement bias, and prediction bias. Behavior Research Methods, 53, 1202-1217.


    Appel, M., Marker, C., & Gnambs, T. (2020). Are social media ruining our lives? A review of meta-analytic evidence. Review of General Psychology, 24(1), 60–74.
    Gnambs, T. (2020). Limited evidence for the effect of red color on cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 27(6), 1374-1382.
    Gnambs, T., & Batinic, B. (2020). Qualitative Methoden der psychologischen Online-Forschung. In G. Mey, & K. Mruck (Hrsg.), Handbuch Qualitative Forschung in der Psychologie: Band 1: Ansätze und Anwendungsfelder (2. Aufl., 1, S. 97–112). Springer VS.
    Gnambs, T., & Schroeders, U. (2020). Cognitive abilities explain wording effects in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Assessment, 27(2), 404-418.
    Gnambs, T., Kovacs, C., & Stiglbauer, B. (2020). Processing the word red and intellectual performance: Four replication attempts. Psychology, 6(1), Article 2.
    Gnambs, T., Stasielowicz, L., Wolter, I., & Appel, M. (2020). Do computer games jeopardize educational outcomes: A prospective study on gaming times and academic achievement. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 9(1), 69-82.
    Heyne, N., Artelt, C., Gnambs, T., Gehrer, K., & Schoor, C. (2020). Instructed highlighting of text passages – Indicator of reading or strategic performance? Lingua, 236, Article 102803.
    Landy, J. F., Jia, M., Ding, I. L., Gnambs, T., & Uhlman, E. L. (2020). Crowdsourcing hypothesis tests: Making transparent how design choices shape research results. Psychological Bulletin, 146(5), 451-479.
    Schroeders, U., & Gnambs, T. (2020). Degrees of freedom in multigroup confirmatory factor analyses: Are models of measurement invariance testing correctly specified? European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 36(1), 105-113.
    Steger, D., Schroeders, U., & Gnambs, T. (2020). A meta-analysis of test scores in proctored and unproctored ability assessments. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 36(1), 174-184.
    Thums, K., Gnambs, T., & Wolter, I. (2020). The impact of gender-stereotypical text contents on reading competence in women and men. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 23, 1283-1301.


    Appel, M., & Gnambs, T. (2019). Shyness and social media use: A meta-analytic summary of moderating and mediating effects. Computers in Human Behavior, 98, 294–301.
    Fischer, L., Gnambs, T., Rohm, T., & Carstensen, C. H. (2019). Longitudinal linking of Rasch-model-scaled competence tests in large-scale assessments: A comparison and evaluation of different linking methods and anchoring designs based on two tests on mathematical competence administered in grades 5 and 7. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 61(1), 37-64.
    Gnambs, T. (2019). Attitudes towards emergent autonomous robots in Austria and Germany. e&i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, 136(7), 296-300.
    Gnambs, T. (2019). Opinion leadership types or continuous opinion leadership traits? International Journal of Psychology, 54(1), 88-92.
    Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2019). Are robots becoming unpopular? Changes in attitudes towards autonomous robotic systems in Europe. Computers in Human Behavior, 93, 53-61.
    Gnambs, T., & Nusser, L. (2019). The longitudinal measurement of reasoning abilities in students with special educational needs. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.
    Gnambs, T., & Stiglbauer, B. (2019). No personality change following unemployment: A registered replication of Boyce, Wood, Daly, and Sedikides (2015). Journal of Research in Personality, 81, 195-206.
    Kovacs, C., Batinic, B., Stiglbauer, B., & Gnambs, T. (2019). Development of a shortened version of the Latent and Manifest Benefits of Work (LAMB) scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(5), 685-697.
    Kröhne, U., Gnambs, T., & Goldhammer, F. (2019). Disentangling setting and mode effects for online competence assessment. In H.-P. Blossfeld, & H.-G. Roßbach (Hrsg.), Education as a lifelong process (3. Aufl., S. 171-193). Springer VS.
    Scharl, A., & Gnambs, T. (2019). Longitudinal item response modeling and posterior predictive checking in R and Stan. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 15(2), 75-95.
    Vlasak, T., Jordakieva, G., Gnambs, T., Augner, C., Crevenna, R., Winker, R., & Barth, A. (2019). Blood lead levels and cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 668, 678-684.


    Appel, M., Schreiner, C., Weber, S., Mara, M., & Gnambs, T. (2018). Intensity of Facebook use is associated with lower self concept clarity: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Media Psychology, 30(3), 160–172.
    Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2018). Narcissism and social networking behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality, 86(2), 200–212.
    Gnambs, T., & Staufenbiel, T. (2018). The structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): Two meta-analytic factor analyses. Health Psychology Review, 12(2), 179–194.
    Gnambs, T., Scharl, A., & Schroeders, U. (2018). The structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: A cross-cultural meta-analysis. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 226(1), 14–29.
    Klein, R. A., Vianello, M., Hasselman, F., Adams, B. G., Adams, R. B., Alper, S., Aveyard, M., Axt, J. R., Babalola, M. T., Batra, R., Berkics, M., Bernstein, M. J., Berry, D. R., Bialobrzeska, O., Binan, E. D., Bocian, K., Brandt, M. J., Busching, R., Rédei, A. C., . . . Zhijia, Z. (2018). Many Labs 2: Investigating variation in replicability across sample and setting. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1(4), 443–490.
    Kovacs, C., Stiglbauer, B., Batinic, B., & Gnambs, T. (2018). Exploring different forms of job (dis)satisfaction and their relationship with well-being, motivation and performance. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 67(3), 523–556.
    Marker, C., Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2018). Active on Facebook and failing at school? Meta-analytic findings on the relationship between online social networking activities and academic achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 30(3), 651–677.
    Zinn, S., & Gnambs, T. (2018). Modeling competence development in the presence of selection bias. Behavior Research Methods, 50(6), 2426–2441.


    Gnambs, T. (2017). Human capital and reemployment success: The role of cognitive abilities and personality. Journal of Intelligence, 5(1), 9.
    Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2017). Is computer gaming associated with cognitive abilities? A population study among German adolescents. Intelligence, 61, 19-28.
    Gnambs, T., & Batinic, B. (2017). Qualitative Methoden in der psychologischen Online-Forschung. In G. Mey, & K. Mruck (Hrsg.), Handbuch Qualitative Forschung in der Psychologie (S. 320-332). Springer VS.
    Gnambs, T., & Buntins, K. (2017). The measurement of variability and change in life satisfaction: A comparison of single-item and multi-item instruments. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 33(4), 224-238.
    Gnambs, T., & Kaspar, K. (2017). Socially desirable responding in web-based questionnaires: A meta-analytic review of the candor hypothesis. Assessment, 24(6), 746-762.
    Holtz, P., & Gnambs, T. (2017). The improvement of student teachers' instructional quality during a 15-week field experience: A latent multimethod change analysis. Higher Education, 74(4), 669-685.


    Batinic, B., Appel, M., & Gnambs, T. (2016). Examining individual differences in interpersonal influence: on the psychometric properties of the Generalized Opinion Leadership Scale (GOLS). Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150(1), 88-101.
    Gnambs, T. (2016). Sociodemographic effects on the test-retest reliability of the Big Five Inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 32(4), 307-311.
    Gnambs, T., & Hanfstingl, B. (2016). The decline of academic motivation during adolescence: An accelerated longitudinal cohort analysis on the effect of psychological need satisfaction. Educational Psychology, 36(9), 1691-1705.
    Gnambs, T., & Staufenbiel, T. (2016). Parameter accuracy in meta-analyses of factor structures. Research Synthesis Methods, 7(2), 168-186.
    Kaspar, K., Buß, L. V., Rogner, J., & Gnambs, T. (2016). Engagement in one-night stands in Germany and Spain: Does personality matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 92, 74-79.